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Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1620-1621, oil on canvas, 199 x 162.5 cm, Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Judith is a biblical heroine who lived in the sixth century BCE.  She was an Israelite widow whose city was attacked by the Assyrian army and the general Holofernes.  Pretending to join the Assyrians, she joined the camp and was able to make the general fall in love with her.  One night she got Holofernes drunk, overpowered him, and cut off his head.

Judith is typically depicted either in the act of decapitating Holofernes, or afterwards, with his head in a bag.