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Émile Lévy, Death of Orpheus, 1866, oil on canvas, 189 x 118 cm, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Orpheus was a talented young musician married to the nymph Eurydice.  When his wife was bitten by a snake and died, he journeyed to the Underworld and won over Hades/Pluto and Persephone/Proserpina with his beautiful music.  He is told that he can take Eurydice, as long as he does not look back as she follows him out.  He gives in, however, and she disappears back into the Underworld.

He is traditionally shown in one of three scenes:  taming animals with his music, rescuing Eurydice from the Underworld, or being killed by Bacchants (as can be seen here).  He is also sometimes seen with a violin, rather than a lyre.