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Gustav Klimt, Pallas Athene, 1898, oil on canvas, 75 x 75 cm, Historical Museum of the City of Vienna, Vienna

Athena (Greek) or Minerva (Roman) is the goddess of wisdom, war, arts, and science.  She was born, fully armed, from the head of Zeus/Jupiter.  She avoids falling in love, but is involved in many heroic scenes, including helping Perseus slay Medusa.  Though she is a warrior, she promotes order and is often in opposition to Ares/Mars.  

Along with her attributes depicted here, she often is depicted with an owl, symbolic of wisdom, and frequntly holds a sheild featuring the head of the Gorgon.